Roman Bone Votive Idol, Carving of standing Goddess, ca. 2nd - 3rd Century CE. Finely incised with tightly wrapped tunic. Head facing forward with hair pulled up and bound under a headdress. Thin lips pursed in a slight smile. Head reattached from original piece. On custom stand. Roman, 2nd - 3rd Century C.E. Found in the Holy Land. 5 1/2" high. According to Archer St. Clair, Carving as Craft: Palatine East and the Greco-Roman Bone and Ivory Carving Tradition, sculpture in ivory, bone, and horn, strives to bridge the gap in between ivory (predominantly from elephants) and bone (mostly from cattle). The former is widely considered to have been an exotic luxury, the latter a cheap, locally available substitute. St. Clair emphasizes the physical properties of bone (particularly its greater strength, but also specific morphological qualities) that make it superior to ivory for some uses.