Islamic Pottery "Hand Grenade", circa 6th - 8th Century CE, found in the Holy Land. In conical form with glazed conical body. Small hole in top for insertion of flammable liquid and wick. 5" high X 4" diameter. Erosion of glaze & small chips due to age & use, otherwise in good condition. Ex: Archaeological Center, Old Jaffa. Ancient grenades, then known as “Greek Fire”, were invented in the seventh century CE. Contrary to its name, Greek Fire was a weapon from the Byzantine Empire. The Syrian military engineer called Kallinikos formed this “liquid fire” that was rumored to be inextinguishable. The formula was said to be so potent, it remained a strong flame even when burning on water. The innovation of Greek Fire could not have come at a better time for the Byzantine Empire. When it was created in 678 CE, the Byzantines were holding off an Arab siege. When Greek Fire was put to the test, victory came for the Byzantines. At the creation of Greek Fire, the recipe and ingredients were kept secret, only to be passed down from emperor to emperor. To this day the exact materials used are unknown. Even with extreme precaution and secrecy, the Arab military officials took the Byzantine creation and manufactured their own, less potent, version of Greek Fire.