Sassanian Empire, Carnelian Bead Necklace, (224 - 651 CE), length approx. 25". In excellent condition. The Sassanid era, during Late Antiquity, is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods. In many ways the Sassanid period witnessed the highest achievement of ancient Persian civilization, and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. Carnelian is a brownish-red mineral which is commonly used as a semi-precious gemstone. The bow drill was used to drill holes into carnelian in Mehrgarh between 4th-5th millennium BCE. Carnelian was recovered from Bronze Age Minoan layers at Knossos on Crete in a form that demonstrated its use in decorative arts; this use dates to approximately 1800 BCE. Carnelian was used widely during Roman times to make engraved gems for signet or seal rings for imprinting a seal with wax on correspondence or other important documents. Hot wax does not stick to carnelian.