2 different forms of Neanderthal scrapers. Jasper, heights 2" and 2 3/8". Marbach, Germany, legal surface finds. 2 subtle and finely crafted scrapers, the one on the left being a concave scraper with a fine end scraper (upper left quadrant in top photo). The one on the right is a straight scraper on a flake. The flake was the top part of a smaller jasper pebble. Date to approximately 80,000-50,000 BCE.
Solid, backed Neanderthal chopper with a borer point from Fontmaure, France. Jasper, height 3 3/8". Legal surface find. Very large areas of cortex remaining with glossy ground patina on the jasper surface. Excellent condition. Sophisticated ergonomic design relative to both the point and the flaked cleaver or chopper edge. Dates to 50,000 BCE.
Large Neanderthal axe "a gibbosite". Lower Normandy (Calvados region), flint, height 5 1/8". Missing a few very minor chips. Purchased from a very old French collection at auction. Very nice example of an ax "a gibbosite", which refers to the extension on the axe visible to the lower left in the first photo. The remarkable ergonomic design of this axe indicates the work of a real master. Note, on the right hand photo, the flake removed just below the inventory number...
Large Neanderthal scraper on a flake from Fontmaure, France. Jasper, height 4 3/4" Legal surface find in excellent condition with soft ground patina. I've always been impressed with the strength and accuracy needed to have detached this large flake in a single blow. Backed with a large area of cortex, the flaked edge exhibits both a convex scraper and a broad concave scraper or shaft straightener. While minimal, the ergonomic touches are masterful. Dates to 80,000-50,000 BCE.
A group of 8 Neanderthal micro-tools from Fontmaure, France. Jasper, heights between 1"- 1 7/8". All intact with no damage. legal surface finds. Cool variety of tool including blade edges, scrapers, notches and burins. All display masterful retouches. Dating to 80,000-50,000 BCE.
Wonderful, conceptually complex Neanderthal multi-tool. Flint, height 3 1/8". Excellent condition, slight ground patina, legal surface find from the Grand-Pressigny region, France. Very interesting and eccentric multi-tool. The top is a shaft straightener/concave scraper, and the slight extension with traces of cortex is a nose end scraper. Descending the length of the lithic from there is a denticulate saw edge...
3 Mesolithic/Neolithic scrapers from Manor Farm, Eccles Road, Quindenham, Norfolk, Norwich, England. From an auction lot of a large group of archaeological finds from Manor Farm. Flint, heights between 1 3/4" and 2". Excellent condition. 3 beautifully crafted smaller scrapers on gem-like, lustrous glossy black flint. Lovely group.
Three eccentric Neanderthal multi-tools on irregular Levallois flakes. Jasper, heights between 2 1/2" and 3 3/8". Fontmaure, France. Legal surface finds. All in excellent condition with glossy patinas. Interesting group of tools which take full advantage of the random forms of the irregular Levallois flakes, having been retouched to highlight the properties of the flake. Dating to approximately 80,000-50,000 BCE.
4 Mesolithic tools from South Wiltshire, England. All legal surface finds. Beautiful, variegated flint, heights between 1 7/8" and 2 1/2". All in excellent condition. These tools represent a number of different tools: on the left a backed concave and convex scraper with 2 burins, next a convex scraper on a flake, third is a double blade with traces of cortex, and on the right a burin with 2 denticulate or saw edges.
2 Neanderthal burins from Fontmaure, France. Jasper, heights 2 1/8" and 2 1/4". Excellent condition, legal surface finds. Both also have a worked scraper or blade edge, and the burin to the left has a hooked notch. Dating to 80,000-50,000 BCE.
A group of four smaller Neolithic Willow Leaf Blades from the northern Sahara region. These were part of an auction purchase, so I have no information regarding origin or find history. All four are flint, in excellent condition, heights between 1 7/8" and 2 1/8". Probably dating to around 7500 BCE. All four are bifacially flaked with great precision, with one slight chip missing on the lithic second from the left in the photo. Otherwise all are in excellent condition. Matte desert patina.
A smaller refined Lower Paleolithic Acheulean biface axe. Flint, height 3 1/4". Legal surface find, Abilly, France. Probably very early Neanderthal. This axe is smaller than what one generally sees as being attributed to Heidelberg Man. Excellent condition with no modern damage. Tiny ridge areas of surface abrasion, luminous patina. Lovely, small and complex hand axe, showing the remarkable knapping skills of its maker. Dates to approximately 700,000-300,000 BCE.
A diverse group of 5 Neanderthal tools, 4 in chert and one in flint. Heights between 1 3/4" and 2 5/8". The 4 lithics in chert (similar ochre color) are all legal excavation finds from Marbach, Germany. The flint lithic (second from left) was purchased as part of a separate group with no data identifying source or origin. To judge from the stone I would hazard a guess that it is from Lower Normandy in France. All are in excellent condition...
A lovely, sea-worn Neanderthal naturally backed scraper with point on a flake from Reculver, Kent, UK. Height 3 1/2". Legal surface find in excellent condition, on a rich, soft brown flint. Looks to be entirely hard hammer percussion. Dates to approximately 350,000 BCE.
Neanderthal biface axe. Sandstone, height 4 5/8" Abilly area (?), France. Auction purchase, French collection. Missing a large flake on the verso. This is a very old break, well patinated. Probably frost damage and not from use. Beautifully crafted and sculptural axe. Sandstone or quartzite tools from this region are known but are quite rare. Dates to approximately 80,000-50,000 BCE.
Sedalia axe. Mozarkite (chert), height 4 5/8". Auction purchase, found in Morgan County, Missouri by Bill Van Pool. Excellent condition. Interesting biface that appears to have been used and then reformed on the distal end. Nice ground patina. As I am unfamiliar with this specific type of tool and region I would be unable to properly date it.
Two flint cores from the Linear Pottery Culture (or Linear Band Ware Culture) from Neolithic central Europe. Dating to 5500-4500 BCE. Both in excellent condition, heights 1 7/8" and 2". Both legal surface finds from Bavaria. Very interesting and eccentrically sculptural blade cores, each displaying multiple flake removals for small blades and microliths. Nice aesthetic on these small cores.
A group of 3 Neanderthal multi-tools from Fontmaure, France. Jasper, heights between 2 1/4" and 2 3/8". All legal surface finds. All three of these lithics are multi-tools on flakes. The burin on the left has a beautiful notch executed with a single flaking blow which also served to define the burin tip itself. The central lithic has several retouched edges and a still rather sharp burin. All three date to 80,000-50,000 BCE.
A group of 6 Danish Mesolithic blades from the Ertebolle-Ellerbek ("Kitchen Midden") culture. Flint, lengths between 2" and 3 1/4". The largest blade has a chip at the proximal end. All others are intact. All have retouched edges, making for a variety of blade or sickle type tools. Beautiful, variegated and semi-translucent flint. Dating to 5300-3900 BCE.
Larger Neanderthal notched backed blade. Jasper, height 5 1/4" From Fontmaure, France. Excellent condition, dryish patina. Legal surface find. Beautiful backed blade, created with a few simple flaking strikes, and then refined on one edge. Well designed ergonomically, with a notch at the center of the blade itself. The notch shows signs of use related wear. Lovely form and example of Fontmaure jasper. Dating to approximately 50,000 BCE.
Three different style of Neanderthal multi-tools from Fontmaure, France. Jasper, heights between 2 5/8" and 3 5/16". All three an old auction purchase, I have no source or find data on them. All in excellent condition with luminous ground patina. The lithic to the left is bifacially worked with 2 blade or very fine scraper edges and a sort of crushing edge on the distal end. It could be classified as a proto-axe...
Group of 4 smaller and diverse Neanderthal tools. Jasper, heights between 2" and 2 1/2". Marbach, Germany. Legal site finds, all intact and in excellent condition, with the exception of the very tip of burin missing on the third tool from the left. Nice set of small but complex multi-tools on flakes. The lithic to the right is an excellent and still completely useable denticulate saw. Date to approximately 50,000 BCE.
Moroccan stromatolite fossil well preserved in a nice red sandstone believed to be from from Kem Kem beds and date from the cretaceous period .These microbial fossils are one of Earth's earliest records of life. The earliest known stromatolite fossils are between 3.5 - 2.75 billion years old in the Precambrian period. The blue-green algae in these early colonies were important in creating Earth's current oxygen atmosphere. size 6" by 4" and weighs 2 pounds
Nice group of 8 various tools and micro-tools from Fontmaure, France. All are jasper, in excellent condition with fine ground patina. All are legal surface finds from an older Dutch collection. Heights vary from 1 1/2" to 2".
The use of micro-tools is still not clearly determined. Possible uses may have included medical purposes, smaller refined work, or they may have been made for children to use. Dating to approximately 80,000-50,000 BCE.
A group of six masterfully conceived and executed Neanderthal multi-tools. The first and the fifth from the left are from Marbach, Germany, chert, and legal excavation finds. The other four are from Fontmaure, France, jasper, and legal surface finds. Heights vary between 1 1/8" and 1 7/8". All in excellent condition, varying ground patinas...
Large Neanderthal scraper on a flake, flint, height 4 1/4". Vallee de la Creuse, Grand-Pressigny region, France. Legal surface find from an old, dried riverbed. Excellent condition with a nice patina and large area of cortex. Fine retouches along the distal end and both edges. Dates to approximately 80,000-50,000 BCE.
2 Neolithic tools from Grand-Pressigny, France. Flint, heights both 2 3/4". Legal surface finds. Both in excellent condition with lovely patinas. Excellent examples of a notched scraper and a burin or borer. Dating to approximately 5,000-3,500 BCE.
Two Neanderthal burins from Marbach, Germany. Chert, heights 1 5/8" and 2 1/8". Both in excellent condition, legal excavation finds. Semi-glossy ground patina. These are fairly complex multi-tools, very well conceived and crafted as they have a number of varied scraper/blade edges despite their relatively small size. Date to 80,000-50,000 BCE.
Lovely, small Paleolithic knife on a flake from the Suwannee River/Withlacoochee River basin area of northern Florida. Chert, height 2 7/16". Excellent condition with deep chocolate to black dry patina. Auction purchase, ex.Cottingham collection. Wonderfully minimalist and sculptural blade with superbly executed retouches along the blade edge. Dates to 10,000-8,000 BCE.
Moroccan stromatolite fossil well preserved in a nice red sandstone believed to date from about 600 million years ago.These microbial fossils are one of Earth's earliest records of life. The earliest known stromatolite fossils are between 3.5 - 2.75 billion years old in the Precambrian period. The blue-green algae in these early colonies were important in creating Earth's current oxygen atmosphere. size 4.5" by 3" by 4" and weighs 1 pounds
A large Neanderthal flint pic with a beautiful sea patina from Reculver Cliffs, Kent, UK. Height 4 1/4". Legal find from the tidal pool area. Missing one or two minor, old chips, otherwise excellent condition, very solid, sculptural example. Dates to approximately 80,000-50,000 BCE.
Interesting pair of Neanderthal multi-tools from Fontmaure, France. Jasper, heights both at 3 3/4". Legal surface finds, the lithic on the right has a couple of very minor chips missing.
Both of these tools are of unusual structure and typology. The lithic on the left is primarily a burin on a large flake. The flake side is comprised of a large area of cortex or softer jasper. There is an interesting concave scraper edge to this tool as well...
This is an unusual and larger Neanderthal convergent scraper, on what appears to be a wedge flake of some sort. Jasper, height 3 3/8", from Marbach, Germany. Legal excavation find. Missing several minor chips. The flake, though slightly curved laterally, is perfectly flat, with the two faces essentially parallel. The entirety of the edge has been retouched, giving a number of various workable tools, including a slight notch/burin on the proximal edge...
A group of 4 burins from Fontmaure, France. Jasper, heights between 1 3/4"- 2 1/4". All in excellent condition. Legal surface finds. The third from the left could also be classified as a convergent scraper. They could be Neanderthal or Upper Paleolithic (Aurignacian or Gravettian) Homo Sapiens, or a mix. The 2 lithics on the left and the one to the far right exhibit clear burin blows used to make the burin tip. Approximate dates would be between 50,000-22,000 BCE.
2 Neanderthal flake cores. Jasper, heights 2 1/2" and 3". legal surface finds from a Dutch collection. Lovely, asymmetric flake cores on richly colored examples of Fontmaure jasper. Both are quite sculptural and in excellent condition. Dating to approximately 80,000-50,000 BCE.
Two smaller Neanderthal multi-tools from Marbach, Germany. Both are legal excavation finds, red chert, heights 1 7/8" and 2". Both have a semi-glossy ground patina. Some chips missing on the lithic to the left, otherwise excellent condition. I think that what looks like a burin or point on the side of this small tool was actually caused by some use related damage on either side of it, and it was not an intentional feature. This was probably a convex scraper originally, and the distal end, w...
Large Authentic Spinosaurus Aegyptiacus (var. Maroccanus) Dinosaur Tooth from the Kem Kem Basin of Morocco. Crtaceous Period (c. 108 - 94 Million Years). 60 mm (2 1/4").
This is a very old Neanderthal partial biface proto-axe on a large levallois flake. Flint, height 3 1/4". legal surface find from the Vallee de la Creuse, France. The distal end is broken off. The chip appears to be quite old, and possibly use-related damage. Lovely patina and variegated surface to this piece. Dates to 100,000-80,000 BCE.
Lower Paleolithic chopping tool, Heidelberg Man, from Grand Pressigny, France. Flint, height 5". Legal surface find in excellent condition. Exceptional, glass-like ground patina. Interesting, hefty tool with good evidence of use as a chopper along two of the edges. This is a partial biface lithic, hard hammer percussion, with a good area of cortex remaining on one side. A very early example of a Mode 2 (Acheulean) tool. Dates to 605,000-350,000 BCE.
A group of three Neanderthal burins, all with scraper edges, from Marbach, Germany. Chert, legal surface finds, heights between 2 1/8" and 3". Excellent condition with matte ground patina. The two lithics pictured to the left and center have offset burins with accompanying convergent scraper edges. The lithic to the right has an unusual, semi-corkscrew twist to the scraper. Date to 80,000-50,000 BCE.
Moroccan stromatolite fossil well preserved in a nice red sandstone believed to date from about 600 million years ago.These microbial fossils are one of Earth's earliest records of life. The earliest known stromatolite fossils are between 3.5 - 2.75 billion years old in the Precambrian period. The blue-green algae in these early colonies were important in creating Earth's current oxygen atmosphere. Size 5" by 4" by and weighs 1.2 pounds
Four flint blade cores from the Neolithic Linear Pottery Culture (5500-4500 BCE). Also known as the linear Band Ware culture, this society represents a major step in the development and spread of agriculture in central Europe. All four cores are legal surface finds from Bavaria. Heights between 1 1/8" and 2 1/4". Excellent condition with varying semi-glossy ground patinas. Solid, very sculptural cores with fine and clear knapping removing small to micro-lithic size blade flakes. Some larger ...
A group of 3 varied multi-tools on flakes from South Wiltshire, England. Flint, heights between 2 3/8" and 2 7/8". All in excellent condition, legal excavation finds. Each of these three lithics displays a multiple of worked surfaces, the central lithic being a burin with the proximal end retouched as a scraper. All date to approximately 10,000 BCE.
A partially bifacially worked Neanderthal axe from Fontmaure, France, height 3 5/16". Jasper, in excellent condition, legal surface find with glossy ground patina. Unusual lithic that slips in between several modern categories. There is a long straight scraper on one edge, terminating in a flaked chopping edge at the distal end. Much of the proximal end and side opposite the scraper are untouched and take advantage of the natural structure of the pebble to give solid ergonomic support. Nice...
A larger, heavy Neanderthal multi-tool on a flake, which may have been a core originally. From Fontmaure, France, jasper, height 4 1/4", legal surface find. Excellent condition, with soft ground patina. While the initial handling of this lithic was quite bold and sculptural (which leads me to believe it was a core at first), there is a variety of more subtle retouches on several surfaces, making it a complex tool. The burin with the bold notch below it is evident. The distal end next to th...
A large lower paleolithic burin with a concave scraper on a pebble fragment. Bean ore jasper in excellent condition, height 5". Legal surface find, Nordlinger Ries, Germany. Either Heidelberg Man or very early Neanderthal/transitional. Dates to approximately200,000-150,000 BCE.
Three solid Paleolithic scrapers from the Suwannee River/Withlacoochee River basin area of northern Florida. Chert, heights between 2 1/4" and 2 3/4". All in excellent condition with a rich, organic semi-glossy patina. These are white chert. Auction purchase, Cottingham collection, Texas. All three scrapers are very thick with a nice sculptural execution to the flaking and good presence. Date to 10,000-8,000 BCE.
Five Neanderthal multi-tools made from chert or jasper from Marbach, Germany. All five are in excellent condition, heights between 2 1/8" and 2 3/8" and are legal surface finds. All are on flakes and exhibit fine worksmanship and multiple retouched edges. Date to 80,000-50,000 BCE.
A group of 5 small Neanderthal cores from Fontmaure, France. Jasper, diameters between 1 1/2" and 1 3/4". All legal surface finds in excellent condition. Nice selection of small, gemlike flake cores with beautiful patina on some lovely examples of Fontmaure jasper. Dating to 80,000-50,000 BCE.
A pair of Paleolithic native American hammerstones from the Suwanee River Basin, northern Florida. Chert, in excellent and intact condition. Matte ground patina. Heights 1 3/4" and 2". Legal finds, ex. Michael Cottingham collection. Dating to approx. 8000-5000 BCE.
A group of four Neanderthal burins made of chert from Marbach, Germany. Heights between 1 7/8" and 2". All legal surface finds in excellent condition. Though smaller, these four lithics exhibit excellent craftsmanship both in conception and execution, and are multi-tools with several different scraper/blade edges as well as the burin tips. Date to 80,000-50,000 BCE.
Very nice group of four smaller Neanderthal multi-tools on flakes from Fontmaure, France. All beautiful examples of the famous Fontmaure jasper, all in excellent condition with semi-glossy ground patina. Legal surface finds, heights between 1 3/4" and 2 1/8". Each of these tools, despite their smaller size, are equipt with at least two functional scraper/blade edges. There are also notches, shaft straighteners and burin tips as well. Conceptionally remarkable examples of Neanderthal stonewo...
Two very unusual Neanderthal scrapers from Marbach, Germany. Chert, heights 1 7/8" and 2 1/2". Legal excavation finds. Slight chips from use on the larger of the two, otherwise excellent condition. Variegated ground patina.
These two scrapers are difficult to place in the typology, and may be a form specific to the Marbach region. They both are flake tools, with a discoid or quite round convex scraper on one end, relatively thin, and they gradually deepen on the proximal end into a comparab...
A large multi-tool/scraper on a flake from the Nordlinger Ries, Germany. Jasper, height 3 7/8". Excellent condition with a semi-glossy surface patina. Legal excavation find. This is a difficult lithic to classify. It may be a recycled tool as it exhibits two different techniques (hard hammer Clactonian and soft hammer retouches) which seem to be by two different hands. Excellent ergonomics and a particularly beautiful and luminous surface. Could be either Homo Erectus or Neanderthal, or pos...
3 Neanderthal burins from Fontmaure, France. Jasper, heights between 2 5/8" and 3 1/2". Legal surface finds in excellent condition. All three are flake tools, all three exhibit extensive edge retouches. Dating to 80,000-50,000 BCE.
A group of four small Neanderthal multi-tools from Fontmaure, France. Jasper, heights between 1 1/2" and 1 3/4". All legal surface finds in excellent condition, glossy ground patina. With the exception of the burin on the left, these tools are all multi-tools that, at their small size, exhibit a mastery of conceptualization and technique in the exploitation of a very small piece of stone to produce a functional tool with a multitude of uses. The small blade with the burin, second to left, is...
A set of 5 Neanderthal tools from Marbach, Germany. Chert, heights between 2 1/2" and 3 1/2". All legal site finds in excellent condition. The scraper on the left has some ancient, well patinated evidence of use wear. Nice, very sculptural and very masterfully conceived and executed group of tools. The several blade edges on these are still intact and quite sharp. The lithic to the right is a particularly concise and finely wrought burin. All dating to approximately 80,000-50,000 BCE.
A middle bronze age hammer stone from Barton, UK. Flint, height 2 1/8". Legal surface find. Excellent condition with fine, variegated glossy patina. This small hammer stone shows extensive signs of use, being nearly entirely covered with the typical fracturing seen on hammer stones. Very fine example. Dates to approximately 1500 BCE.
2 Neolithic to early bronze age hammer stones from Suffolk, England. Both flint, excellent condition. Dimensions 2 5/8"x 2 5/8" and 2 1/2"x 2 1/2". Legal finds. Fine, sculptural examples, both with excellent patinas and evidence of long and extensive use as hammer stones. Date to 3500-1500 BCE.
Neanderthal partial biface axe from the Calvados region, Lower Normandy, France. Flint, height 4 1/8". Auction purchase, at the time I was informed that this came from a very old collection in Normandy. Soft, matte ground patina, excellent condition. Slight trace of having been fire treated on the distal end. Probably used as a chopping tool, there are two flaked scraper edges converging on the distal end. These follow the larger flakes removed visible on the ventral face. Dates to 100,00...