Apolonia Ancient Art offers ancient Greek, Roman, Egyptian, and Pre-Columbian works of art Apolonia Ancient Art
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Pre AD 1000 item #1329528
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This attractive piece is a Roman armor "belt fitting" plaque that dates circa 3rd-4th century A.D. This piece is approximately 2.5 inches wide, by 2.4 inches high, and is a complete example of a Roman bronze "belt fitting" plaque type segment, which was a component of a Roman belt. This Roman bronze "belt fitting" plaque was prominently displayed on a Roman legionnaire with a frontal view, and Roman bronze "belt fitting" plaques of this type usually portrayed heroic scenes that illustrate several Roman gods and goddesses. The back side of this piece has four round studs that attached this piece to a thick leather backing, which also served as the inner layer of the belt. The right side of this piece has two round elongated hooks that likely fit into a pin, and/or into another segment of the entire belt. The belt that held this plaque was a large and wide example, and may also have wrapped around the torso of a legionnaire in order to secure a "scale-armor" mail type shirt. In addition, this belt may also have supported a "gladius" or "spatha" sword and scabbard, and this type of Roman belt was known as a "cingulum", which was generally worn around the waist and best represented the Roman military soldier in the 3rd century A.D. (For the type, see Peter Connolly, "Greece and Rome at War", Macdonald Phoebus Ltd, UK, 1981, pp. 260-261.) This scarce piece shows a standing nude Dionysus, otherwise known to the Romans as Bacchus, who is seen leaning right, and is holding a "thyrsus" in his left hand, and pouring a wine offering into the ground from an oinochoe in his right hand. There is also what appears to be a panther seen below, and ivy tendrils are seen to the right as well. The military symbolism of this piece is apparent, as the "thyrsus" was not only a beneficent wand of Bacchus, but was also a weapon that was used to destroy those who opposed his cult and the freedoms he represents. It is quite possible that an individual, or a Roman soldier, who wore this piece was also a member of this cult. This piece has a nice dark green patina with some spotty dark brown highlights, along with some minute dark black mineral deposits. This piece is an exceptional "belt fitting" plaque, and is scarce on the market. This piece also hangs on a custom Plexiglas stand and can easily be removed. Ex: Fortuna Fine Arts, New York, circa 1990's. Ex: Private New York collection. I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Coins : Pre AD 1000 item #1368965
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This exceptional and rare mint state (FDC) Roman gold aureus was minted in Rome, and dates circa 145 A.D. This coin is graded FDC/FDC (mint state), is 7.32 g., and is approximately 20mm. The coin also has perfect centering, extremely high relief, and a great deal of eye appeal. This coin features on the obverse, a young Faustina Junior facing left, with FAVSTINA AVG PII AVG FIL around. She is seen wearing detailed drapery, with layers of hair tucked up into a bun with dotted pearls. Her portrait is simply magnificent, and her face conveys a serene expression. The reverse features a walking dove facing right on a ground line, with CONCORDIA around. This magnificent coin was also struck under her father Antoninus Pius, and commemorated the April 145 A.D. marriage of Annia Galeria Faustina Junior to her material cousin Marcus Aurelius. At the time of the engagement, Antoninus also formally adopted Marcus Aurelius as his heir. The dove on the reverse represents harmony for a stable marriage, as the dove is known to be monogamous throughout its lifetime. A magnificent coin that is likely the finest known for its type. References: RIC III 503b; Strack 507; Calico 2044c; Biaggi 922; BMCRE 1090. Ex: Private UK collection, circa 1980's. Ex: Roma Numismatics, Auction IX, no. 730. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Pre AD 1000 item #1360586
Apolonia Ancient Art
$685.00
These three Egypto-Late Roman "millefiori" glass beads date circa 7th-8th century A.D., and are in mint quality condition. These three brilliant colored glass beads are approximately .75, .5, and .7 inches high, and .7 inches in diameter. These pieces are classified as being Egypto-Roman "millefiori" glass, and all three beads have vibrant multiple colors such as white, light blue, dark red, green, dark blue, yellow, and black. These three beads are also very different with their color combinations and their surface texture. "Millefiori" glass was highly specialized in it's production, and was made with multi-colored glass canes or rods. In antiquity, these beads were also prized as personal jewelry and works of art. These beads are also thought to have been produced in Egypt in the city of Fustat, and are also commonly known as "crumb-beads". These beautiful pieces are also very durable, and can easily be worn today. A necklace with 32 analogous Roman "millefiori" beads was sold at Christie's Ancient Jewelry, Dec. 2007, no. 426. ($15,000.00-$20,000.00 estimates, $27,400.00 realized. See attached photo.) The three Egypto-Roman beads offered here not only have very vibrant colors, but also have a high degree of eye appeal and are three of the finest examples offered on the market today. These three pieces also sit on a custom display stand, and can easily lift off their support pins. Ex: Fortuna Fine Arts, New York, circa 1980's. Ex: Private New York collection. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that these pieces are authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Pre AD 1000 item #1311165
Apolonia Ancient Art
$2,365.00
This cute piece is a Roman bronze seated Silenus that dates circa 1st century A.D. This piece is approximately 1.9 inches high, and is a complete intact piece that has no repair/restoration. This piece has a beautiful dark green patina with some spotty red highlights, and was cast as one piece. This piece shows a nude drunken and drinking Silenus seated on a rock, and he is holding a kantharos in his left hand, and his right hand is raised with an open palm and raised thumb. This pose with the open palm is also thought to have been a popular gesture used by actors in the Greek and Roman theater. (For a description of these various theatrical poses and gestures see: "The History of the Greek and Roman Theater", by Margarete Bieber, Princeton University Press, 1939.) The Silenus seen here has the typical bald head, pot belly, short legs, and had human and horse attributes. The eyes and facial features are very well detailed, and this piece is a nice example of this mythical creature who was the companion and tutor of Dionysus. This piece also has a round insert below the piece, and this is an indication that this piece may have been part of a group bronze sculpture made from several figurines. This piece also has a small flat section on top of the head, and this may have been designed to support another object and/or figurine as well. A nice Roman bronze with a great deal of eye appeal. Ex: Private New York collection. Ex: Phoenix Ancient Art, New York and Geneva, circa late 1990's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) This piece also sits on a custom display stand, and simply lifts off the stand. I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Glass : Pre AD 1000 item #583883
Apolonia Ancient Art
$2,365.00
This mint quality Roman glass bottle dates circa 1st-2nd century A.D., and is approximately 6.3 inches high by 5.3 inches in diameter. This mint quality piece has an extended flat and thin upper rim which is intact, and as such, is a rare example for the type, as most Roman glass vessels of this type have a cracked and/or broken upper rim. This attractive vessel also has an exceptional multi-colored patina, and is much better than most examples of this type, as the patina is very thick in sections. This vessel is also a light blue-green color, and has light brown and white calcite deposits that are seen both on the inside and outside surfaces. (For an analogous example, see "Roman and Pre-Roman Glass in the Royal Ontario Museum" no. 146, p.58.) The exceptional piece offered here is seldom seen on the market in this mint quality, and has a great deal of eye appeal. Ex: Private New York collection. Ex: Fortuna Fine Arts, New York, circa 1990's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Pre AD 1000 item #1308509
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This rare piece is a Greco-Roman bronze bust of a bald grotesque figurine that dates to the late Hellenistic Period, circa 1st century B.C.-1st century A.D. This piece is approximately 1 inch high, and is a superb example with a nice even dark green patina. This piece was likely a bottle stopper and/or may have fitted into a long-necked glass or bronze vessel. The bottom of the stem appears to have been broken, and this piece may have had a longer stem that could have extended down into the vessel. This piece may also have had gold or silver gilt, and may possibly have been a garment or hair pin. Regardless of what this piece could have been, it was certainly made to have been seen, and the bald head and deformed features of this "grotesque bust" is very noticeable. This interesting piece has ears that are lop-sided, with one higher than the other, deep sunken eyes, and a very a very large nose. This portrait may also represent an actual individual that was born with these deformities, and may have been created to represent an actual person rather than a fantasy individual. It is also possible that this deformed person may have been the subject of a play, and may have represented a type of actor. An analogous piece with a near identical portrait, and described as a "Dancing Grotesque of Mine", is seen in "Master Bronzes from the Classical World", by Mittien and Doeringer, Fogg Art Museum Pub., 1968, no. 122. (This published piece has an identical portrait as the piece offered here, and is bald except for a lock at the crown. This near nude figurine is also posed in a vigorous dance, and is a dancer that likely held castanet-like clappers. This piece is also described as having "contorted contours and exaggerated features which embody the Hellenistic love of caricature", and is "allegedly from Alexandria". See attached photo.) The portrait seen on this published piece, and the piece offered here is nearly identical, and both pieces were likely produced in an Alexandrian workshop. The rare piece offered here also sits on the custom display stand and can easily be removed. Ex: Joel Malter collection, Los Angeles, CA., circa 1980's. Ex: Private CA. collection. I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Pre AD 1000 item #1374529
Apolonia Ancient Art
$965.00
This mint quality Roman glass flask dates circa 2nd century A.D., and is approximately 7.6 inches high. This flawless light green glass piece has no breaks or chips, and is a larger example than what is normally seen. This well designed piece also has a large folded rim at the top that provided greater control while pouring a liquid, and in addition, there is also an indented bottom design that allowed this piece to solidly stand upright. This piece also has an indented section at the bottom of the elongated neck, and this also controlled the flow of liquid within the vessel. This piece has a brilliant multi-iridescent patina with light blue highlights, seen in sections of the vessel, along with some light brown earthen deposits and minute root marking. Overall, an attractive piece with nice eye appeal that has interesting design features. (For the type see, John Hayes, "Roman and Pre-Roman Glass in the Royal Onterio Museum", 1975, no. 231.) Ex: Joel Malter collection, Los Angeles, CA., circa 1980's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Pre AD 1000 item #1226370
Apolonia Ancient Art
$3,265.00
This beautiful piece is a Graeco-Roman bronze that dates circa 1st century B.C.-1st century A.D. This complete piece is approximately 3.5 inches high, and stands by itself on it's own base. This type of nude female Graco-Roman piece is known as the "Aphrodite Anadyomene", whose name signifies the birth of the goddess from the foam of the sea. The Greek goddess Aphrodite was born from the sea foam created when the severed genitals of Uranus were cast into the sea. Like many other naked figures of the goddess Aphrodite, the "Anadyomene" was not posed to conceal the body, and has arms raised to the hair which exposes the body to the gaze. In the Hellenistic and Roman periods, each hand is seen lifting and/or wringing the wet hair strands that hang down to the shoulders, as Aphrodite was seen rising from the sea at her birth. Her head is also seen slightly bent, her face is generally seen with a long straight nose with a small mouth, and she usually has wide hips and thighs. All of these features noted above create an impression of youthful fertility, and portray Aphrodite as having eternal youth and beauty. The piece offered here displays all of these features, and in addition, the "Aphrodite Anadyomene" is portrayed in a "contrapposto pose", with the weight carried on one leg with a slight twist to the waist. For the type, see Margarete Bieber, "The Sculpture of the Hellenistic Age", New York: Columbia University Press, 1955. The piece offered here has the features attributed to the "Aphrodite Anadyomene" sculptural type as noted above, including the rolled hair that is seen coiled into a bun with a small tie at the front. The piece seen here is an exceptional example of the type, as the face is very sensual with the long nose and slight smile. This piece is also complete, is cast with it's own base, and is intact with a beautiful dark green patina with red highlights. This piece is scarce on the market in this complete and superb condition, and it also sits on an included custom Plexiglas stand. Ex: Frank Sternberg collection, Zurich, Switzerland, circa 1980's. Ex: Antiqua Ancient Art, Los Angeles, CA. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Glass : Pre AD 1000 item #1313572
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This exceptional piece is a massive Roman glass bottle that dates circa 2nd century A.D. This piece is approximately 12.1 inches high, and is in flawless condition with no cracks and/or chips. This beautiful piece is a pale blue-green color, is free blown, and has a slightly indented "dimple base". This piece also has a long cylindrical neck that is constricted at the lower end, and has a flanged "roll-band" below the rounded rim. This "roll-band" was designed to act as an aid for a portable seal over the opening, such as an animal skin or textile seal. This large-scale piece was also likely a storage vessel for a precious oil or unguent. This piece has a beautiful multi-colored iridescent patina, exceptional smooth surfaces, and some minute root marking. Large-scale Roman blown glass vessels like this example took a great deal of skill to produce, and large-scale pieces with balanced symmetry like this example are rare on the market. In addition, flawless examples like this piece are also not often seen as well. A rare and exceptional large-scale piece that has an interesting design with a brilliant multi-colored patina. Ex: Private Geneva, Switzerland, collection, circa 1980's. Ex: Christie's Antiquities, New York, June 2012, no. 138. ($6,000.00-$8,000.00 estimates.) Ex: Private New York collection. I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Pre AD 1000 item #1374530
Apolonia Ancient Art
$825.00
This mint quality piece is a Roman glass patella cup that dates circa 2nd-3rd century A.D., and is approximately 4.5 inches in diameter, by 1.5 inches high. This beautiful dark green glass piece is mint quality, has a thick honey brown patina seen mostly on the outer surfaces, and an iridescent silvery milky-white patina seen mostly on the inner surfaces. There is also some attractive minute root marking and some dark black mineral deposits seen within the thick encrusted surface patina. This piece has an applied ring base, a folded ring running around the rim, a raised inner base, and a pontil-mark on the bottom. This piece is also thin walled, and is very light in weight for it's size, and as such, is a rare example for the type. This piece is known as a "patella cup" due to it's design, and is one of the best examples for the type with it's exquisite patina. For an analogous example see: John Hayes, "Roman and Pre-Roman Glass in the Royal Ontario Museum", Toronto, 1975, no. 196, pl. 171. Ex: Private New York collection. Ex: Fortuna Fine Arts, New York, circa 1980's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Pre AD 1000 item #1374571
Apolonia Ancient Art
$1,365.00
This brilliant Roman glass flask dates circa 1st-2nd century A.D., and is approximately 4 inches high. This piece is mint quality, and has no cracks and/or chips. This piece is a dark orange-brown amber colored glass, and has an extended flat lip with a folded rim, along with an elongated neck. This piece is also relatively "thick-walled", and has a very durable compact design. This vessel's globular body, with a wide elongated neck that is a third of the vessel's height, is also a hallmark design of early Roman Imperial Period glass. This piece has an exceptional brilliant "reddish-gold" multi-iridescent patina, and there is a thin silvery iridescent film patina layer seen on various sections of the vessel. This attractive silvery layer also fills into some heavy root marking as well. This type of Roman glass vessel is also classified as being "mid 1st century A.D." by John Hayes in "Roman and Pre-Roman Glass in the Royal Ontario Museum", Toronto, 1975, pp. 34-35, no. 101. Ex: Private New York collection, circa 1970's. Ex: Phoenix Ancient Art, Geneva and New York, circa 2000-2014, Inv. #P33-059-012614a. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Pre AD 1000 item #599095
Apolonia Ancient Art
$865.00
This superb Roman bronze piece is an applique with the image of Silenus. This piece dates circa 1st century B.C.-1st century A.D., and is in the form of a facing head, with an attached peg that extends about 1.5 inches from the back side of the applique. This piece was probably mounted in an object such as a furniture piece, or a bronze and wooden door, or a composite work or arms such as a Roman shield. A piece with this type of design, with the extended peg, could have fit in a number of objects. The Sileni were native not to Greece, but to Phrygia in Roman Asia, and personified the genii of springs and rivers. Unlike the Satyrs who derive chiefly from the he-goat, the Sileni derive rather from the horse, whose tail hooves, and even ears they possess. This piece clearly shows the horse ears and shows Silenus as a fat old man, snub-nosed, always drunk, who was in the retinue of Dionysus. Silenus was the tutor of Dionysus and had helped him form his character, and the bust seen here is a very powerful and intense image of Silenus. The diameter of this piece is approximately 1.4 inches and the length is approximately 2 inches. This piece has a dark green patina with red highlights and the detail is superb. There are also some heavy dark green mineral deposits seen on the extended peg. This piece is mounted with clay on a custom black/plexiglas base and can easily be removed. Ex: Private German collection, circa 1980's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Pre AD 1000 item #1304240
Apolonia Ancient Art
$675.00
This nice piece is a Roman bronze "crossbow type" fibula that dates circa early 4th century A.D. This piece is approximately 3.6 inches long, by 2.25 inches wide, and is in mint to superb condition. This intact and complete piece has a main body that was cast as one piece, and there are three small decorative spheres were later added with pins. The single intact attachment pin was added to the horizontal arm, and engages in the straight section of the vertical section. This thin attachment pin still has some movement, and can move in and out of the vertical clasp, and up and down within the horizontal arm. The overall design of this attractive piece is in the form of a Latin Cross, and also represents Christ on the Cross. The "crossbow fibula" type was derived from the earlier Etruscan and Greek "bow type". The "crossbow type" fibula seen here was very common in the 4th and 5th century A.D., and is thought to have originated in the Danube region, from which it spread throughout the Roman Empire. The piece offered here is a male fibula, and was worn by soldiers, and by high ranking civil servants and officials. This piece was used primarily to fasten the cloak on the shoulder of the wearer. Many of these examples also had gold and silver gilt, and were inlaid with precious stones. The example offered here has no traces of gold and silver gilt, but it does have eight rounded holes seen in the flat section of the vertical arm, and these holes could have held mounted precious stones or glass. This piece also has a beautiful dark emerald green patina, and is an exceptional example for the type. This piece stands on a custom display stand, and can easily be removed. Ex: Joel Malter collection, Los Angeles, CA., circa 1980's. Ex: Private CA. collection. I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Pre AD 1000 item #1373145
Apolonia Ancient Art
$725.00
This intricate and beautiful piece is a Romano-Celtic silver brooch fibula that dates circa 1st century B.C.-1st century A.D. This attractive piece is approximately 1.25 inches in diameter, is .2 inches thick, and was cast as one single piece. This solid silver piece also has an added "swivel clasp mount" pin attachment on the backside of the piece. This piece is also intact, save for the thin missing attachment pin that was attached to the "swivel clasp mount". This piece has a Celtic "trumpet swirl" pattern design, and is an intricately designed piece. This piece has a dark gray patina with some minute light green cuprite deposits. Overall, this piece appears to be un-cleaned, and is in it's natural "as found" condition. This piece also hangs on a custom display stand, and can easily be worn as a pendant today. Ex: Private United Kingdom collection, circa 1980's. Ex: Private New York collection, circa 1990's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Bronze : Pre AD 1000 item #1246443
Apolonia Ancient Art
$1,865.00
This esoteric piece is a Roman bronze herm that dates circa 1st-2nd century A.D. This piece is approximately 3 inches high, and has a beautiful dark green patina with some spotty dark red highlights. This piece is also complete, and has no restoration/repair. This piece has the typical Roman herm design, which is a square designed lower body, small square side handles that are seen just below the shoulders, and an attached bust seen at the top. The design of this attractive bronze is an imitation of a large marble or bronze sculpture, which was normally erected in front of private homes as a "protector type" object. The piece offered here was likely part of a private shrine that was inside of a private home or temple. What makes the design of this piece not so typical, is the realistic and young satyr head which has a young, sweet appearance. The head is very detailed and is seen slightly tilted to the right, and the thin neck, detailed hair, and upturned horns seen on the upper forehead is very esoteric. An analogous type/example is seen in Bonham's Antiquities, London, June 1997, no. 298. (800-1000 Pound estimates. See attached photo.) The piece offered here is a scarce example, as it has great artistic style and eye appeal. This piece stands on a custom display stand, and can be easily removed. Ex: Fortuna Fine Arts, New York, circa 1980's. Ex: Private New York collection. (Note: Additional information is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Pre AD 1000 item #1290942
Apolonia Ancient Art
$1,365.00
This attractive piece is a Roman bronze ring that dates circa 1st-2nd century A.D. This complete piece is approximately 1 inch wide, is ring size 6.5, and was made for a young man or woman. This ring has an oval shaped hoop, and this shape provided for a wide face that looks very large when worn on the finger. This piece is very solid and can easily be worn today as well. This piece has sections of original gold gilt seen over the bronze, and this piece has a brilliant translucent orange carnelian stone that is firmly attached to the bronze bezel. The beautiful carnelian stone was never reattached to the ring, and it is firmly in place in it's original setting. The brilliant orange carnelian stone also has a carved image of a seated animal, possibly a dog or a fox. This animal is seen on a ground line, and has raised ears and a long curled tail. The brilliant orange carnelian stone is also highly polished, has an oval shape, a flat bottom, and is clear save for a small black inclusion that is deep within the stone. This piece was also used as a personal seal/signet ring, and makes a sharp impression. The condition of this piece is superb, and is intact with no repair/restoration, and has original gold gilt seen on the inner and outer surfaces of the bronze bezel. Overall, this attractive piece is in better condition than most examples of its type, and is in its natural "as found" condition. Ex: Private New York collection, circa 1980's. Ex: Phoenix Ancient Art, New York and Geneva, Inv. #P33-091-031915. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Pre AD 1000 item #1385777
Apolonia Ancient Art
$465.00
This complete piece is a Roman bronze oil lamp cover in the form of a facing Medusa head, and dates circa 2nd-3rd century A.D., and is approximately 1.5 inches in diameter, by .28 inches high in relief. This piece was cast as one solid piece, and has a concave back side and the front side has the facing head of Medusa with long flowing hair. The face is extremely rounded with no facial expression, and has a cloak tie seen below the chin. In addition, there is an indented hole at the top with a bar which served as an opening for a swivel attachment. This piece covered a hole in a bronze oil lamp, and moved up and down over the hole. This piece has a lovely dark green patina, and has very sharp detail, especially with the eyes that have raised hollow pupils that are very noticeable. This piece has a great deal of eye appeal, and is a large example for the type. This piece also hangs on a custom display stand, can easily be removed, and also can be worn as a pendant. Ex: Joel Malter collection, Los Angeles, CA., circa 1980's. Ex: Private CA. collection. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Pre AD 1000 item #1283823
Apolonia Ancient Art
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This visually appealing piece is a Roman marble of the goddess Minerva, and dates circa 2nd-3rd century A.D. This piece is approximately 8.75 inches high, by 5 inches wide. This piece is a helmeted bust of the Roman goddess Minerva, who also doubled as the Greek goddess Athena. This piece shows Minerva with finely carved hair that is seen under the edges of the Corinthian type helmet, and is a portrait of a young woman that conveys the eternal beauty of the goddess. She is also seen with a serene expression, and her rounded chin also conveys a goddess that is perceived as a powerful woman. The helmet also has a raised crest, and has an inset square dowel joint on each side that probably supported a running Pegasus that was mounted on each side of the helmet. In addition, this piece is carved in the round, and the helmet design is seen on the back side of the bust as well. The face is completely intact, with no major breaks, and the carving of the eyes, nose, and the delicate mouth is extremely detailed. The eyes also have center drilled dots with a carved circular iris, which give this piece a very dynamic "alive" look, and the treatment of the eyes in this fashion is typical for Roman portraiture especially during the Antonine Period, circa 2nd century A.D. This piece also has a nice light gray patina, with heavier dark gray mineral deposits seen at the back of the bust. This piece is also analogous in design to the earlier Greek Athenian coinage, circa 5th century B.C., which shows on the obverse a helmeted Athena in profile wearing a Corinthian type helmet, with a helmet crest and dotted necklace. This piece also follows the design of the Greek gold coinage of Alexander the Great, who placed a helmeted bust of Athena on the obverse of his gold staters, circa late 4th century B.C. This piece is scarce to rare on the market, as it likely completed a full size standing and draped statue of the goddess. The portrait type of this piece was derived from an earlier Greek prototype, which is thought to be a large full standing bronze cult statue that is known as the "Athena Sunias", which was displayed in a temple dedicated to Athena at Cape Sounion. (See G. Despinis, "Athena Sunias-Eine Vermutung", Archaologischer Anzeiger, 1999, pp. 173-181.) An analogous example without the helmet crest and dotted necklace, and of nearly the same size was offered by Halan J. Berk of Chicago, Ill. in "Ancient Art", 1987, no. 45. (See attached photo.) The Berk example was also mounted on a custom display stand, as the piece offered here, with a center pin running up into the lower neck where the break occurred. The piece offered here has a great deal of eye appeal, as the facial design of this piece, especially with the treatment of the eyes and delicate mouth, provide this piece with a very dynamic "alive" and "penetrating" look. Ex: Private New York collection. Ex: Phoenix Ancient Art, Geneva and New York, circa 2000-2014, Inv.# P33-059-012614b. I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition: