This is a Pre-Columbian CHAVIN Turquoise Carved BEAD from Peru, 1500 - 300 B.C. It measures about 1 5/8" X 5/8" X 3/8" ( 4.2 cm X 1.6 cm X 1.0 cm ). The Chavin Culture was located in the alley Conchucos on the Eastern side of the White Mountains, along the River Mosna, in the present Ancash, located 3,150 meters above sea level. Chavin spread from Lambayeque to Ica (on the Coast), from Cajamarca to Ayacucho (in the mountains). Chavin was a Theocratic Society, controlled by the Priests (specialists) who ruled on behalf of the gods. Chavin worshipped the Jaguar and the Puma. Chavin succeeded for their modern, productive, and innovative agriculture (modern and advanced for their time).